Caesar was born on the 12th or 13th July of the year 100 before Christ, in Rome. He was a member of the clan "Gens Iulia". They were descendants of Aeneas. His Uncle Gaius Marius, allied by marriage, was the leader of the Populares, the party of the people. The Populares were the opponents of the Optimates, the party of the Senate where many noble and distinct people sat. Marius, in his first year as a consul, had taken heavy measures against the Optimates. In the same year, Marius indicated Caesar as "flamen dialis", an archaic priest with no power. Later Caesar became a member of the Populares.
Caesar married in 84 BC with Cornelia. She was the daughter of Marius' agent, Cinna. When Lucius Cornelius Sulla, leader of the Optimates, became a dictator in 82 BC, he made a list of all his opponents who must be executed. Although Caesar hadn't done anything yet, he was ordered to divorce Cornelia. Because he didn't obey this order, Caesar became an outlaw. To safe his life, he fled to Little-Asia.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla died in 78 BC. Caesar returned to Rome to become a lawyer. Caesar was still 22 years young and unable to start with his cursus honorum (to start with his political career). From 75-73 BC, Caesar moved to Rhodos, to learn eloquence. In 68 BC Caesar started his cursus honorum with the office of quaestor. He was responsible for the treasure and for collecting taxes. In 65 BC Caesar became aediel. He organised games and took care of public works. But he had to pay all the costs by himself. To make this possible, he lent money from Marcus Licinius Crassus. Caesar became very popular with the people. And in 64 BC he was elected to pontifex maximus (supreme priest). In 62 BC Caesar became praetor (judge).
In 60 BC the first triumvirate was set up (3 triumvirs ruled the Roman Empire) with Gaius Iulius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus and Marcus Licinius Crassus. By the fact that Pompeius married Caesars daughter, Julia, their relationship became tighter. And in 59 BC Caesar was elected to consul. They divided the Roman Empire in three parts. Caesar got the government on Elyria and Gallia Cis- et transalpina (Gaul before and after the Alps). From 58 BC to 52 BC Caesar submitted Gaul en he extended the Roman Empire to the Rhenus (Rhine), the frontier where the Germans lived.
While Caesar was in Gaul, a struggle for power took place between the agents of Caesar. This formed a threat for Pompeius. It became necessary for the triumvirs to meet each other and to discuss a few things. All this happened in the year 56 BC, on a place called Luca. Because of this meeting, the triumvirs agreed for a while. It was decided that Caesar would go on conquering Gaul for five years, while Pompeius and Crassus would be consul for the year 55 BC; afterwards the triumvirs would be consul again, each of his own province. Caesar left Gaul to avoid a riot and to lead an expedition to Britannia. On his landing he said:" Veni, vidi, vici." what means: " I came, I saw and I conquered".
Crassus went back to his post in Syria. Crassus was beaten and killed in the battle against Parthia, an ancient kingdom in West-Asia, in 53 BC on a place called Carrhae. The last buffer between Caesar and Pompeius, whose family ties were broken by the death of Julia (54 BC), was removed.
Out of jalousie for his younger rival, Pompeius decided to break Caesar's power. To make this possible, he could only rob Caesar from the command of his troops in Gaul. To protect himself, Caesar proposed to give up their leader positions simultaneous. Pompeius rejected this proposal. The Senate decided that Caesar should resign (Pompeius was a member of the Senate) and that he should disband his army. Otherwise he would be considered as a public enemy. The tributes of the People in the Senate, who were in charge of the interests of the people and who had a right of veto, forbade this. However, they were driven out of the Senate. The Senate trusted the security of the state to Pompeius. He had more troops than Caesar, but they were divided throe the Roman Empire and the troops who were in Italy weren't ready. Caesar crossed early in the year 49 BC the Rubicon, a river who separate Gallia Cisalpina from Italy. It was then that he said the famous words: "Alea iacta est." What means: "The die is cast." And Caesar went further southwards. Therefore Pompeius fled to Brundisium and from Brundisium further to Greece. Within 3 months Caesar controlled Italy, because of his war of many years' standing, in Gaul, he had gain many power, troops and money. After that, his troops continued conquering till he reached the frontier of Spain and the mighty port Massilia (Marseille, France).
Caesar stayed dictator until he was elected consul in 48 BC. In the beginning of that year he crossed to Greece, where he beat the troops of Pompeius. Pompeius escaped and fled to Egypt, where he was murdered later on.
When Caesar came in Egypt, he indicated Cleopatra as Queen of Egypt. In the year 47 BC Caesar had conquered Asia Minor and returned to Rome as a dictator. In 48 BC the power, in hands of the Optimates, was broken and the whole area around the Mediterranean was subjected. That's why the Romans called the Mediterranean "Mare Nostrum" (our sea). Caesar ruled as dictator. This was only allowed by the Republican law (Republic was from 509 BC until 31 BC) for six months in an emergency situation. But Sulla, who had ruled as dictator for several years, had already broken this rule. In 45 BC, Caesar was already consul for ten years. He received the title: " inviolability of the Tribune". This rule made it illegal to harm Caesar. He received also the title: "Imperator". This title was only given to generals who had made an important victory for the Roman State.
A few families of the Senate felt threaten by Caesar's power, because the were afraid to lose their mighty positions and because they thought that Caesar would like to become a "rex" (king). This title was hated by the Republicans, especially after the last king of Rome, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, had ruled cruel and injustice over the Roman Empire. A group of senators, including Marcus Iunius Brutus, planned an assassination of Caesar. On the iden of the month March 44 Before Christ (the 15th), Caesar was murdered.